1.            Bonow, R.O., et al., ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): Developed in Collaboration With the Society of […]


AORTIC STENOSIS IS UNDERTREATED DESPITE KNOWN CLINICAL BENEFITS The ACC/AHA Guideline mandated treatment for severe aortic stenosis (SAS) is aortic valve replacement (AVR)[1].   While over 67,000 AVRs are performed in America each year for aortic stenosis, population statistics estimate that over 500,000 people in America have severe aortic stenosis [2-4], illustrating that aortic stenosis is […]

Dr. Antoine Keller Discusses the Growing Concern Over Heart Murmurs

Dr. Antoine Keller Discusses the Growing Concern Over Heart Murmurs      

Cardiovascular Controversies #2: On-Pump vs. Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Operations

  On-Pump vs. Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Operations “On-Pump” Surgery – Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. The CPB pump itself is often referred to as a “heart–lung” machine. The first […]

Is Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery Right for You?

Is Minimally Invasive Surgery Right for You? The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has arguably been the most significant development in surgical practice since anesthesia.  By developing technology that allows surgeons to perform intricate surgical procedures through smaller and smaller incisions, surgeons have provided their patients with faster recovery times, reduced perioperative pain to […]

Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair / Replacement

  Surgical treatment for mitral valve disease includes either repairing the patient’s diseased valve or replacing it with a metal, mechanical valve or an animal tissue valve.  Mitral valve surgery was first performed in 1960, when surgeons replaced the diseased, native valve with an artificial valve.  For the next 20 years, replacement with a metal […]

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): Changing the paradigm for the treatment of aortic stenosis

One of the latest treatment options for aortic valve replacement surgery is Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) surgery.  TAVR involves fixing a valve that has become “stenotic” (blocked) by using catheters and wires to place an artificial valve inside of the diseased valve.  At present, there is only one TAVR device commercially available, in the […]

What’s New in Structural Heart Disease Treatment?

Structural heart disease may be congenital (present from birth), may occur as a result of an infection in the heart (endocarditis), from damage during a heart attack (post-infarction), or because of heart valve disease that progresses with age(most commonly aortic stenosis or mitral regurgitation).  Heart valve problems such as valve leaking(regurgitation) and valve stiffening(stenosis), if […]


Cardiovascular Controversies #1 Stents Versus Heart Bypass Surgery For Coronary Artery Disease There was a time in America when you had a heart blockage that the only option available to you was heart bypass surgery. Over the last 50 years, cardiologists have been developing techniques in which a wire mesh tube is implanted in the […]